Property Rights Foundation of America®
Founded 1994

Conservatism and Beauty in the Rugged Life


Jigs and Jo Ann Gardner
West Port, New York
Jigs: Writer, Assoc. Editor St. Croix Review
Jo Ann: Writer, Lecturer, Horticulturist

Twentieth Annual National Conference on
Private Property Rights
October 22, 2016
The Century House, Latham, N.Y

 

Jo Ann Gardner: Well, we're going to have to shorten this. So, a friend of mine who was an expert on old roses, I asked her once, "Lily, how do you ever show ninety slides in an hour?" She says, "Fast." So, anyway I have brought these two books. This is Seeds of Transcendence, you can see a salvia plant on the cover shadowed by a menorah. So, you can get the idea of that. And this is the book that we wrote together, Gardens of Use and Delight. I have one copy of the Seeds book and two of the others for sale today otherwise you can order them. You can see the contact information in your kit.

Jigs Gardner: I was supposed to start.

Jo Ann: No, you are going to start, dear. Just a minute. It's sixty-two years, by the way. Okay. Go ahead.

Jigs: Alright. Since we have to go fast, you're going to see a lot of pretty pictures. But underlining it all is something serious. And this is really, this whole business is a tribute to private property issues. See, we lived in Vermont in the 1960s. We ran a little private tutoring school and a little farm on the side to feed us all. It was a self-sufficient operation, the whole thing. Self-reliant, rather. And we saved money because we wanted to own a farm. But that was the time when everybody down country was coming up to northern New England and the prices of land were jumping up and up. So, we looked all over New England and that was no good. So, then we decided to try the Maritime Provinces and Nova Scotia was the most welcoming. I advertised in the weekly papers all over the province and I went up to look at the farms. I don't know, I looked at about twenty, I guess, all over the province. Finally, the last one was perfect. And when I say that, I'm not going to give you a big talk about this. The point is this. When you're buying a farm, to Hell with the goddamned house! She cried when I showed it to her. Anyway, you can always build a house. You can't change the lay of the land. The land has to be right and this was right. The orchard, the pastures, the hay field, the wood lots, all okay. We paid $8,000 for a hundred-acre farm. We moved there the next year, the spring of 1971. Now, before I start on that let me explain the Vermont deal.

It didn't seem so at the time, but in retrospect it was easy what we did in Vermont. We planted huge gardens, huge results. We spread manure on the ground and the hay grew so we really had very little trouble there. And it's significant that so many utopian communities were established in the Nineteenth Century in America from Brook Farm in the East to New Harmony in the West and they all lived off the fat of the land. That's what we were doing in Vermont. Because we were organic farmers, enthusiastic environmentalists, and Utopian Socialists, followers of the Socialist Labor Party. We got to Cape Breton [Island] and the first thing we discovered was podzols soil, the soil of the North which has been leached of minerals by glaciation. This kind of soil grows weeds better than cultivars because cultivars require something, weeds don't. Our seeds didn't germinate. Even later, after I'd improved everything, I had to use three times the amount of seed when I spread forage seed in the fields. Three times the required amount. The seeds didn't germinate, the gardens didn't grow. You put manure on the ground and nothing happened to it. There were no microbes to work it over. So, that was hard, number one. Number two, the climate is dreadful. Wind has been recorded on the island of 125 miles an hour. We didn't get that regularly, but we got 80 and 90 miles regularly. The roof off the house. The roof off the barn. How do you keep animals in that kind of climate? There was no spring because the pack ice was still around the island, in July! A hard, hard life. And unlike so many people of our generation we had no money. It all went into buying the place. We had to succeed! We had to make a living and we were determined to make a beautiful farm. We did it. We didn't make any money until the third year but thereafter we were all right.

Okay. So, what happened to our lovely theories? The first thing that went was the organic stuff. I studied soils and that was that. The big blow was environmentalism. There was a terrible plague of spruce budworm on the island and they really destroyed the forests on the island. And there was a big controversy about spraying. I belonged to a big environmental group. They sent out a mailing. I read the mailing and I said to myself, "There's something wrong here." They quoted a study that I knew was wrong. It had been disproved. So, I said to myself, "What do I know?" I didn't know a goddamned thing. I had opinions. I had no knowledge. I got knowledge. And environmentalism went out the window. And then Utopian Socialism went out and we became conservatives because conservatism has a basic principle people don't talk about much — it's realism. Realism about people and about things.

Jo Ann: Okay Peter next. Peter is at the technical helm today and he's offered — or I've made him — put the slides forward. I didn't want to deal with that technology. This is an aerial view of the farm and you can talk about that.

Jigs: Well, you know, I talked about the land. Well, look at that. Miles from anywhere.

Jo Ann: That's us in the middle.

Jigs: That's it. Miles of forest.

Jo Ann: Do you wonder why I cried when we got there?

Jigs: But, nevertheless, down this side was our forest — where that other clear space is — and the rest was ours. And we really made it beautiful farm.

Jo Ann: What Jigs didn't tell you when he was talking about, you know, "this was the perfect farm," this was the "no" capital of the world. That's what I called it. There was no running water. Well, Jigs said, "Yes, there's running water. There's a hand pump. You pump it and the water comes out." We had no vehicle after the first year because it costs too much to run it. We weren't making any money and there was no telephone because the phone company said it would cost $20,000 to run a line in there. So, it was the "no" capital of the world. So, keep that in mind while we look at the different slides and what we did there.

So, we were utterly dependent on our own resources with very little monetary outlay. Okay, Peter, next. Okay, this is the half-mile lane. We walked down this road every day to the mailbox. The mailbox was very important in our life. This was communication with the outside world. We sent messages to our neighbors via the mail lady. We delivered eggs. It was very important. One of us would walk down the other would walk back. Sometimes we would take a horse. Sometimes in the winter the lane would be a half mile of sheer ice going all the way down and back. And this was my first effort at naturalizing. We'll talk about that later. I love naturalizing. You take someplace on your property that is suitable for letting plants — and they should be vigorous plants — grow on their own with minimum interference. And this is the White Flower Farm. You probably know about White Flower Farm in Litchfield Connecticut. Our son brought us a collection of bulbs. It was a hundred daffodil bulbs and after several years they had multiplied by the thousands. They loved the cold, wet, heavy, damp soil. Go ahead.

Jigs: Well, thank you. The tracks tell you that I've been down there with a one-horse wagon and that tells you about that clay. That won't go away until there's been another torrential rain.

Jo Ann: Next, Peter. There it is. That's what I saw when we moved there in 1971. That's the "no" capital of the world. That is a typical bare Cape Breton farmhouse. Okay next, Peter. And there you see it. That was probably in the year 2000, I don't know. But we've added on a little greenhouse. We've added on a woodshed, which we'll see later. And this here was — what do you call that, a pulp…? It's a landing.

Jigs: A skidway.

Jo Ann: A skidway. We used that…

Jigs: We loaded logs on the wagon.

Jo Ann: And when we were done using it I saw that it was an opportunistic place to plant plants that would survive there and we started our romance with roses. I really mind the plants that would grow in those conditions. And I really, over thirty years, I learned. Roses happen to be a plant that likes heavy, deep soil that's constantly moist. That rose is a Canadian-bred rose. It's a marvelous rose called Therese Bugnet. And on the handout I have asterisked every rose that's available from this marvelous rose place in Minnesota and that it one of them. It's a survivor. Next. There it is close up. It has all the aura of an old-fashion rose with moderate fragrance and it blooms heavily once and some thereafter. Next.

Ah, there you are relaxing on the porch. Very, very few moments of that. But this is one of the ways we got plants. This is the common rose, rosa virginiana, and it grows along the back dusty roads and country areas. It only blooms once but then it has a season of foliage and hips. Next.

There you can see, that's a typical wild rose with very, very floating fragrance. It doesn't bloom that long but if you grow a variety of roses, you should include some species of wild roses and that way you will extend the bloom and interest all season long. Next. You see this is the fall foliage. So even though it blooms once I call this a second blooming. And, of course, it was covered, covered with hips. Next.

This is… Do you want to tell them about your daisies.

Jigs: First, I made decorative daisies out of old horseshoes. In the background there's the privy and on the right-hand side is the first big log cabin we built. And on the left, just beyond the woodshed, you see a wall, a fence, that was my first experiment in dealing with the wind — and it worked. See, the northwest wind it came from out there and, Jo Ann, there were a lot of flowers you couldn't grow because of the wind. That was the first experiment and it led to much more. Talk some more.

Jo Ann: This is a very simple way to enhance. This was the entranceway to the kitchen and the back door. You couldn't plant in the ground in this area. The ground is much too hard. But you could plant in containers. I'm a big proponent of container plants for difficult places. You can change them around. Here you see the eye drawn to the back of the house. Very, very simple, very ordinary common plants. But it is rather successful. And keep in mind as you see these slides how the landscape is filling up. Remember what you saw in that bare Cape Breton farmhouse and just keep in mind how it's filling up with interest. Next.

This is the back door, the back kitchen door and this is bee balm. I probably, you know, a lot of people grow bee balm. And you know that it's a vigorous plant and it spreads. But I had a problem with bee balm. I mean, you grow it all year for those beautiful red scented blossoms. The hummingbirds come. Now, I used to harvest those for my little business and we'll talk about that later. Jo Ann's Kitchen & Garden and I made buckets and buckets of potpourri. But, of course, I didn't want to pick it because, you know, that's why you grow it. So, I planted it everywhere and this was just another place. But I also want to draw your attention to the fact that this is a very simple accent. Containers and accents are very important, very simple to achieve and very important in the landscape. Next.

There's the little greenhouse and you want to talk about the elderberry hedge?

Jigs: Yeah. That slope is not suitable for anything so it's all planted with elderberries. Now, notice the space there. We had to bring a team of horses through there, winter and summer. In the winter, they deliver wood to the house. In the summer, they're carrying manure around. A team of horses is about this wide plus two feet. Eight feet. Just right. Okay.

Jo Ann: This is very interesting. When people came to the farm they would come up this knoll and they would see the farmhouse and they'd think that was it. But you'll see later what we did was we developed around the corner. And then you've got a real surprise. Okay, next.

Jigs: You see the rain barrel.

Jo Ann: We did collect rain for watering plants.

Jigs: Because we only had a rainwater cistern.

Jo Ann: Yeah, that was another feature. Can we go back? This is some more daffodils naturalized under apple trees. These were very, very good prolific bearing apple trees. I don't know when it was. In the late Nineteenth Century? When the plant peddlers, people lived very isolated lives all over the island. How did they get plants? They had plant peddlers that came with horse and wagon. They had school children that sold seed. So, these were from the plant peddler probably in the late Nineteenth Century. But you can see the landscape is filled up here. This was bare. There's split rail fences. There's a shop there and there's a fence for a vegetable garden. We'll look into those sites in a minute. Next. There.

Jigs: This gives you an idea. I'm sorry I don't have a photograph straight on but you get an idea of the bulk that you have to accommodate. When I was planting, or doing any planting or anything like that, I had to think, "I've got a team to move here." So, this is it.

Jo Ann: Okay, next. There we are, the staff of two after 1978 after our last child left. I was elevated to "Chief Farmhand." I used to help before that but now I was heavy-duty all the time in the woods, in the fields, wherever. Here we are taking the team back in the evening after milking and you can see… talk about wetlands, we had plenty of wetlands. Fortunately, no government agency ever went into the backlands where we lived. That was kind of a "no go" situation. So, we were allowed to do…

Jigs: That was our swimming hole.

Jo Ann: And you can see how it goes. It meanders on and it eventually links up with a…

Jigs: It eventually links up with a lake and there were big trout in there.

Jo Ann: But you can see the softwood. There were hardwoods farther on in the woods but we were surrounded by softwoods. Lots of it. As you remember from that aerial photograph. Okay, Peter.

This was 1973 and if you see a car in a photograph, it's not ours.

Jigs: This was when we were first there. We planted a huge garden. It ran from the foreground all the way down to where that car is but it didn't yield very much.

Jo Ann: Well, increasingly the germination rate was very poor from year to year. Okay, next.

This is beginning to make the raised beds.

Jigs: This is when I wised up about organic farming. You see there's one bed with the cabbage? And then nearer there's a pile of old straw. On making raised beds, lined with plastic, filled with something that will rot, and the fertilizer is 0-20-20. You don't need nitrogen if you've already got all manure.

Jo Ann: Okay, and the next slide. There's the cabbage back there and that was filling in.

Jigs: These are about sixty feet long. Sixty-five feet long and four feet wide. Now, you see the fence over here. That blew down every winter and, by God, I put it back up because that saved us. I grew tomatoes there and corn.

Jo Ann: But we used much less of the land than we did before when we went to the raised bed because production was much better. There were very few weed germinating.

Jigs: The plants were so thick and no weeds.

Jo Ann: Okay next. There it is, kind of filled in. You can see how close together everything is. We did weed every day. Every morning all the weeds we got went to the chickens so it was very easy to maintain. And every year, of course, it had to be topped up with more soil and the soil we made ourselves from the barn, from the manure. We had a big pile there and cleaned out the horse stables and the chicken pen and the cow stables and so forth in the summer. And that all got composted. Okay Next.

Jigs: A farmer gave me a bunch of odd plastic. So, I put it on the ground and then I got ninety-nine tires from a garage. A friend of mine had told me to plant tomatoes in tires because they take up the heat. So, show the next slide.

Jo Ann: This is Floramerica tomato. It was an AA winner.

Jigs: This is a place where nobody before us saw ripe tomatoes outside of a store. We guaranteed ripe tomatoes by August 15th. We sold plants.

Jo Ann: And I think the little red flower over here is an Israeli poppy. I got these seeds from Israel. It's the flower of the field that you read about in the Bible. I was just testing it. We used the tires to grow individual plants that we wanted to observe more closely.

Jigs: And you see I'm growing corn in the raised bed, too.

Jo Ann: Okay, next, Peter. Oh, developing the first flower gardens. You can see the house and down below the house is a shed. That is an original coal shed that the previous people… And by the way, we were only the second family to ever live in that property. The first were the Scottish settlers and we were the second family. That was a coal shed they used and we moved that to make a flower bed because underneath it was fantastic soil. You can see over here we're beginning to put the foundation for a shop that will be coming along in a year or so. Okay, next.

That is my first foray into growing flowering herbs. I wrote a book about it. It's called Herbs in Bloom.

Jigs: It was your first garden ever!

Jo Ann: Well it was my first garden and it was the first sight that people saw when they drove up the lane. This was a pile of rocks and lumber. Again, under that pile the soil was very nice. That was probably the best soil on the whole farm. You can see it's surrounded by this plant called Pulmonaria or lungwort. I don't know if you're familiar with it. It has spotted leaves. According to the doctrine of signatures people thought that the appearance of plants told them what it was good for, so it was probably good for diseased lungs. This was the story. But it has another folk name called hundreds and thousands because it grows by rhizomes. And I used to plant it as a living frame around my gardens because it was very romantic when Jigs cut with a team of horses but it was rather coarse and the grass grew back fast. So, I needed a frame.

Jigs: Never mind the romance.

Jo Ann: Okay, never mind the romance. That should be the name of my biography, my autobiography. Okay, next.

This is a close-up of herbs and flowers. What I discovered was that herbs from Northern Europe were very good and thrived in that climate. Next.

This was the coal shed. You can just see green tulip spears. Okay, next.

Now those tulips grew there. They were still growing when we left. They were at least twenty, twenty-five years old. They simply did not go away. It must have been the trace minerals from the coal, I'm thinking. I don't know. It wasn't a very large space. When I wanted to dig some up to make room for perennials, I threw them on the compost heap. Jigs saw them on the compost heap. He said, "Why are you throwing away those wonderful tulips?" They were in bloom on the compost heap. So, I had to put them back. Okay, next.

Now, I've never grown perennial tulips since then. This is an accent. I talked about an accent by the back door. This was an old wheelbarrow. It's a wonderful wheelbarrow we used for years. But we don't throw anything away. We were into recycling long before the fad and this became a planter and by the way the red flower still in bloom my garden in the Adirondacks it's called Lady in Red. It's a form of Texas sage. It's terrific for hummingbirds. Okay next.

The previous [slide] was the barn. Can we just go back for a minute to the barn?

Jigs: You see the that what we discovered about the barn was that they had not had animals there for eight years. And before that they hadn't spread the manure! They just dumped it in and around the barn and then they put another layer of floor board over it. So, it rotted out all the supporting posts. They were all sitting in manure and all rotted. So, I jacked up the barn with a car jack and we rebuilt the whole lower section of the bar. And that's why there's all that junk lumber out there.

Jo Ann: And beyond the barn is the hayfield and you see the ring of spruce trees. There's always a ring of spruce trees wherever you look. Okay, next.

That's the new shop.

Jigs: You see how I beautified it. Those are nice arches. And they weren't easy to make either.

Jo Ann: And also his daisies on the new building. Above that is the vegetable garden and we'll see that filling in, too. As you can see, the landscape is filling in. It's become layered, almost like a garden is layered. You know they tell you the principles of designing a flower garden, you should have the tall plants in the back and then the medium ones and then the short ones. That was our whole landscape. And that's one of the secrets of a successful landscape. It should be harmoniously layered. Next.

There we go. That's a closeup. Now we had dank conditions there at the base of the shop and I had to figure out what would grow there so after many mistakes I just took the five most vigorous perennials in my garden and I made a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, planting which is simply 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and repeat the plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, down the row and it makes really a great planting. You can see there's a form of monarda there. There's sedum Autumn Joy. There's phlox. There's monkshood. These are all plants that will grow in sunny and dank conditions. Sunny at the head and dank at the feet.

Jigs: And that was hops that was growing over the roof.

Jo Ann: Yeah. So, we did have hops. Can we go back to that slide for a minute?

Jigs: Don't bother.

Jo Ann: The hops is very important because that was a very important plant in the Cape Breton economy. Okay, next.

Jigs: The thing to note here on the righthand side are blueberry bushes. And blueberries grew beautifully there and the winter's wood supply which is drying in the sun. And on the left, these are wild apples growing along the bank behind the shop. You'll see what we do with that.

Jo Ann: Yeah, well, one night in the winter Jigs didn't have anything to read and I gave him a — he didn't usually read gardening books — but I gave him a book by Gertrude Jekyll, the wonderful Nineteenth Century British garden designer, who said that every place on your property should be beautiful. There should be no unsightly places. So, he came to bed that night and he said that we must take care of the unsightly places. And that's how we got to work on that. Okay, next.

That's the unsightly place. That's the bank, wait a minute, go back there and you can see.

Jigs: You see, what I did with those wild apples… They're always full of a lot of low-lying branches. I cut them all off. So there was only the top. And now, just in the background, that's a meat case…

Jo Ann: Down below, over there.

Jigs: …that somebody gave me from an old store. That was my hotbed, because you can open the slides in the back and tend to your plants and you can fill it a lot with manure.

Jo Ann: Is there a slide before that, Peter?

Peter: Yes.

Jo Ann: All right. This was annuals the first year because they grew very well. You seeded them and that was in that soil that you saw. Okay, next.

Now. But we had erosion there. It was a steep bank and so I had to start tucking in perennials. That's Blazing Star, Liatris and nigella which is an annual but it makes a nice combination. Next.

And roses. Discovered again that roses will grow in all sorts of unfavorable conditions as long as they get five to six hours of sun a day. That's a marvelous, marvelous rugosa hybrid. It's very famous. It's an heirloom and very, very fragrant and it's available. I think it has an asterisk on your sheet. Okay, next.

There we have… I don't remember what that guy's name was but that was probably Victor. That was a steer. You see how they were staked out. Very close quarters. So, Jigs would always measure, you know, how much chain was on the animal and he would pace it out to make sure that he didn't reach any of my flowers. But these animals have long tongues and periodically, more than periodically, I just had to get used to and be very nice about it. And I did.

Jigs: What do you mean you were nice about it?

Jo Ann: Well, I tried to be. They would eat a prize iris that I had waited all year to see bloom and so forth. Anyway, here is the Blanc rose, the rugosa, that I showed you, the white one. And it's connected to the little herb garden, the flowering herb garden with a bank of… This is the very ancient rose. It's called the Apothecary Rose. This was the rose that the colonists first took to America. Probably not so much for beauty but for medicinal use. It's very soothing to skin irritations. Okay. Next.

But it has wonderful blooms and when you pick them they gain in strength. Their perfume gains in strength and it's used for potpourri. I had a little business so I had to pick them at the right time. Here you see them in different forms, different stages. You see the ones that are just opened and the ones that are going by. You want the ones that are just opened. Okay, next.

There you see them together. You see the ones that are going by with the ones just opened. And those are the ones that you go out and pick every day to dry for potpourri. Next.

And there we have, just to show you I really did do these things. Every plant that I grew, I figured out some way to make it useful and I did a lot with roses and I developed this little incredible little business on the island — Jo Ann's Kitchen and Garden — which still exists. And these wonderful Cape Bretoners who were very conservative with cooking and everything else, they became my devoted customers and they loved my rose petal jelly, which is really unbelievable to me. So, I made jelly with it. I made potpourri. That's skin freshener. Rose petals do have a very soothing skin property and you steep them in vinegar and so forth. That's the story with that. Okay, next.

Jigs: You see that I made that bank so the growth has a vertical dimension. You have to think of that. You see you don't just walk along and look down. You're aware of the trees above you. And they don't have all those low-lying branches now. And that's the path that we took to the barn twice a day.

Jo Ann: Yeah. Every day we walked that area. Now, before we walked that area and it was a mess. But we just assumed that's the way it had to be. We never realized that we could intervene and actually make it a beautiful area. At the end of this, what I call the poppy walk, and it's the poppy walk because these poppies seeded themselves along the pea row and Jigs didn't like to weed them out so, it became the poppy walk rather than the pea walk. At the end of that you can just see a rose on the fence. And that really divides the sown land, the cultivated land, from the farmland. Next.

And that's the rose. It's called Henry Kelsey. It's part of the absolutely wonderful Canadian rose breeding program that was unfortunately discontinued. It's a little hard to get some of those Canadian roses now but I don't think Henry Kelsey is on the list but some of the other roses are. And that's a rose that I still grow in my Adirondack garden. It's a once-blooming climbing rose that blooms sporadically the rest of the season. And behind that you can see the hay wagon. And that's what we used. We built that up to a ton of hay.

Jigs: That's what she did.

Jo Ann: I became the hay loader. After the last child left I said, "I wonder who's going to make the load this year?" And I should have known, of course, it was going to be me. But anyway, that was quite a job. Okay, next.

This is a wetland but it's very interesting because it's really wet on one side and it's just constant moisture on the other side. There's a little footbridge there so our guests could get to the log cabin which we built against the woods there. But what I discovered was that I could adapt plants to the really wet side where plants were sitting with their feet in the water and I could adapt other plants to the other side. So, it made you as a gardener very observant of the plants that you grow. And what you do when you're naturalizing a wild site is you look to see what's already growing there and you build a plant community around it. Now, I think what was growing here was wild blue iris. So, I added yellow iris. There were buttercups. There was stitchwort. There was forget-me-not. So, I had the beginnings of a plant community. It's just joyous to add other flowers that I just notched them in and then Jigs would sod around it with his sod. And then you just let the plants go to it. They're all vigorous plants. And so, may the best one win. Next.

There's common chives. This went on the side, the really wet side. These chives were standing in water and the blooms had a rosier cast than they do in the regular garden. So, you can see the range of plants you can grow there. Next.

Elecampane was on the side with constant moisture. This is a kind of gangly sunflower type of plant with roots that exude a marvelous violet scent. And this was imported into our country in the turn of the century into the early nineteen hundreds. It was used for various medicinals, mainly horses, horse ointments and that's one of the reasons the plant is called horseheal. Thousands of pounds of roots were imported into the U.S. at one time. Next.

So, this was the view from the cabin. You could have been on the cabin porch and looked out and you could have seen a few straggly wild flowers. Instead you saw wild-like plantings on both sides. These weren't exactly wild. I'd say they were semi-wild. And in the naturalizing I discovered that there are various degrees of naturalizing from just letting plants go to interfering minimally. Anyway, you can see how the landscape is filling up. Next.

Now, this is the last site. Do you want to explain that?

Jigs: Jo Ann was harvesting all the flowers for the stand. So we never had any in the goddamned gardens. So, finally I complained about it. I said, "Look, you've got more flowers drying on the stove than we have outside." So, we made a special Harvest Bed. And that's made just like the other ones. And that's the first winter when it's being made. About 60 feet long, 4 feet wide. On the right is a turkey and chicken pen.

Jo Ann: Well, it was very nice. When I saw that fence I thought, "Ah ha, I'm going to have fun with that." So, that was using the same technique as we used with the vegetable bed with plastic underneath and manure and soil on top. Next.

There you can see the rough outline of — this is what I was talking about — surprise garden when you turn the corner. You remember the elderberry hedge. This is the west side of the house, which was really waste space before. Can we go back a minute. In the foreground is a bed of lovage and that is a very… This is an aerial view of the beds. You can see there's herbs and flowers on this side and there's going to be roses on that side. And there's the poultry pen. So, it's all adjacent to each other and we use the manure from the poultry pen to enhance the beds. But there's a lot of harvesting going on in this fall and all year. Okay, next.

Okay. Time out for… We're just going to the end here. This was early summer.

Jigs: We started late. Give us five minutes.

Jo Ann: We're waiting. Peter is having problems.

Jo Ann: Well, the next one is… Well, let me see what the next one is. The adjacent bed was… That was the first slide we saw and that's the bed that we're talking about now.

Jigs: You see when you come around the house the beds seem to merge so you see one…

Jo Ann: It looks like one but it is two beds actually. That's lovage in the foreground that I used to make an herb salt with. And that's the rose bed that I discussed before. Okay, next.

If we can go to that. Very good. And that's feeding the poultry on one side and working on the other side. Next.

And there you see it filled in. Okay, next.

This is the rose side and you can see that it has a little feature there. That's an old fencepost with a stovetop that will become a planter. Next.

And there it's filled in with roses. Those are all roses and some of them are rugosa roses. We had customers for our rose plants. They always wanted the impossible rose. The impossible rose is one that's very hardy and that will bloom all summer and that is fragrant. And that does hardly exist. But anyway we tried. So, and that's the fencepost planter in bloom. Okay, next.

That's an old rose, Queen of Denmark it's a quartered rose, very, very fragrant, once blooming but beautiful. Next.

The plant here on the side is a Lavatera. I don't know if some of you grow this. It blooms in late summer but it's like a rose. It blooms like a rose and some of these were once blooming roses. It makes a very good rose substitute. You can see it blooming next to a plant, a rose rugosa, with lots of hips. Next.

That's Frau Dagmer which has marvelous, marvelous hips, a famous heirloom rose. Next.

And those are the raised beds that we spent so much time on. That's herbs, flowers and roses all mixed together. Okay, next.

And this is the last site we're going to visit. This is the vertical planting of the other side of the fence. Next.

That's hollyhock. That's an heirloom hollyhock. I collected the seed around the island. And for some reason it didn't get rust. I don't know why. Next.

And these were the roses that I grew, Jackman clematis, Excelsa, which is a form of Dorothy Perkins and that was a rose given to us. A little stick of rose by a friend Veronica. We called it Veronica's Rambler. It's an old-fashioned rambling rose. Okay. And this was just before we're going to leave the farm. Next.

That's it. Okay, that's the last summer and we left. We were sorry to leave but it was time to come home. And when we crossed the border Jigs kissed the ground because he was glad to be home and so were I. Thank you very much.

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